Stonehaven

Infos
Market Square, Stonehaven Stonehaven (Steenhive dans le dialecte écossais doric et Cala na Creige en gaélique) est une ville située sur la côte nord-est de l'Écosse qui compte environ quatorze mille habitants (9 577 selon le census, recensement, de 2001). C'est le chef-lieu du comté historique de Kincardineshire aussi connu sous le nom de The Mearns. Elle s'est construite autour d'un village de pêcheurs de l'âge du fer, aujourd'hui connu sous le no
Stonehaven

Market Square, Stonehaven Stonehaven (Steenhive dans le dialecte écossais doric et Cala na Creige en gaélique) est une ville située sur la côte nord-est de l'Écosse qui compte environ quatorze mille habitants (9 577 selon le census, recensement, de 2001). C'est le chef-lieu du comté historique de Kincardineshire aussi connu sous le nom de The Mearns. Elle s'est construite autour d'un village de pêcheurs de l'âge du fer, aujourd'hui connu sous le nom de Auld Toun (the old town, la vieille ville), et s'est étendue au delà de la côte vers l'intérieur des terres. Déjà au XVI siècle, d'anciennes cartes indiquent que le nom de la ville était Stonehyve or Stonehive.

Histoire

Le blason de Stonehaven:Coupé, au 1 palé d'or et de gueules, au 2 d'azur Stonehaven a été le lieu d'évènements au temps de la préhistoire comme le montrent les découvertes à Fetteresso Castle et les poteries néolithiques extraites dans la région de SpurryhillockClarke, C M 1997 "Palaeoenvironmental results" in Alexander, D 'Excavation of pits containing decorated Neolithic pottery and early lithic material of possible Mesolithic date at Spurryhillock, Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire', PSAS 127, 17-27. La ville se situe au sud de ce qui était autrefois la route Causey Mounth road, qui a été construite sur les hauteurs pour permettre le passage de l'unique route médiévale qui reliait des points centraux situés sur la côte à la ville de Aberdeen. This ancient passage specifically connected the Bridge of Dee to Cowie Castle via the Portlethen Moss and the Stonehaven central plazaC.Michael Hogan, History of Muchalls Castle, Lumina Press, Aberdeen (2005). The route was that taken by the Earl Marischal and Marquess of Montrose when they led a Covenanter army of 9000 men in the first battle of the Civil War in 1639Archibald Watt, Highways and Biways around Kincardineshire, Stonehaven Heritage Society (1985). The Covenanters were imprisoned in Dunnottar Castle, where many died. A memorial to them can be found in Dunnottar Church. Other castles in the vicinity are Fetteresso Castle and Muchalls Castle, both of which are in private ownership and not open to the public. The oldest surviving structure in Stonehaven is the Stonehaven Tolbooth at the harbour, used as an early prison and now a museum. Dunnottar Castle, perched atop a rocky outcrop, was home to the Keith family, and during the Scottish Wars of Independence, the Scottish Crown Jewels were hidden there. In 1296 King Edward I of England (of Braveheart fame) took the castle only for William Wallace to reclaim it in 1297, burning down the church in the process with the entire English garrison still in it. In 1650, Oliver Cromwell sacked the castle to find the Crown Jewels following an eight month siege (having previously destroyed the English Crown Jewels). However, just before the castle fell, the Crown Jewels were smuggled out by some ladies who took them by boat to a small church just down the coast in the village of Kinneff, where they remained undetected for eleven years. Stonehaven was the birthplace of Robert William Thomson, inventor of the pneumatic tyre and the fountain pen and of journalist James Murdoch (1856-1921). Stonehaven was a holiday retreat of the poet, Robert Burns. The novelist Lewis Grassic Gibbon (James Leslie Mitchell) attended school at what was the old Mackie Academy (now Arduthie Primary). The fossil of what is said to be the oldest air-breathing invertebrate discovered was found at Stonehaven's Cowie Beach. Lord Reith of Stonehaven was the founder of the BBC. Famous historical visitors include William Wallace and Mary Queen of Scots.

Geography

Stonehaven is 15 miles (24 km) south of Aberdeen in a sheltered position between the Carron Water and the Cowie Water. Stonehaven lies adjacent to a deeply indented bay surrounded on three sides by higher land between Downie Point and Garron Point. The harbour, consisting of two basins, was improved in the 1820s by the engineer Robert Stevenson (grandfather of the author Robert Louis Stevenson) and became an important centre of the 19th Century herring trade. Stonehaven has grown rapidly since the oil boom in Aberdeen. The increasing demand for new, middle-class housing has seen four new estates being appended to the town, creating a large expanse of suburbs.

Commerce and culture

The town's primary industries are fishing and tourism, with Dunnottar Castle, a local landmark, bringing in a large volume of tourists every year. It was used in the 1990 movie Hamlet (directed by Franco Zeffirelli, and starring Mel Gibson and Glenn Close). Dunnottar Castle is a prominent landmark and is visible on many leaflets (flyers) advertising Scotland. The town has a long beach facing the cold North Sea, with large cliffs at either end sheltering small rock pools and inlets. It is also famous for its Olympic-sized outdoor swimming pool, which is heated and filled with a mixture of tap water and filtered seawater. Another attraction is the , which features the Tolbooth, the town's tiny museum of local heritage. Stonehaven Harbour During Hogmanay festivities, the High Street comes alive with crowds watching the annual fireballs ceremony, in which volunteers walking down the High Street swing huge balls of fire around and around at the ends of chains. The fireballs are finally thrown into the harbour. Every July Stonehaven holds a Highland Games. All those competing in the heavy events (which include the Hammer, the Heavy Stone and Tossing the Caber) must wear full Highland dress. Other events include the Stonehaven Folk Festival regularly attended by famous Glaswegian comedian Billy Connolly. On the first Saturday in June the Feein' Market recreates a 19th Century agricultural hiring fair. The RW Thomson Classic Car Rally is an annual celebration of the inventor of the pneumatic tryre and attracts an impressive range of vintage and classic cars. There are two harbour festivals each summer. A farmers market is now held once a month in the market square where local food suppliers and producers can sell fresh fruit, vegetables, poultry and other types of meat. The town's Haven Fish Bar was the likely origin of the Deep-fried Mars bar, a snack now culturally associated with Scotland - and its health record - as a whole. The premises are now the award-winning Carron fish and chip shop. Stonehaven has three primary schools (Dunnottar, Arduthie and Mill O' Forest) and a large secondary school (Mackie Academy). Poulation expansion has lead to the expansion of primary schools and extra spaces built for classrooms in the secondary school. The town supports a Rugby club - Mackie Academy Former Pupils Rugby Football Club - which plays in the BT National League Division 5. The town also has a junior football club who play in the North Region SuperLeague at Glenury Park. Stonehaven's long established Pipe Band plays at events throughout the year, including the folks festival and fireball ceremony. The band has competeted at various levels throughout its illustrious history including several years at the prestigious Grade 1.

Nearby places of interest

-Dunnottar Castle
-Fetteresso Castle
-Fowlsheugh Nature Reserve
-Muchalls Castle
-Mackie Academy

References

External links

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- Catégorie:Port du Royaume-Uni Catégorie:Aberdeenshire en:Stonehaven gl:Stonehaven
Sujets connexes
Aberdeen   Billy Connolly   Braveheart   Castle   Church   Franco Zeffirelli   Glenn Close   Highland   Highland Game   Hogmanay   Mel Gibson   Oliver Cromwell   Robert Burns   Robert Louis Stevenson   William Wallace  
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